My husband has teachers in his ancestry, Angélique and Marguerite Nolin who started the first school in the Red River Settlement for native and metis girls.
My great grandfather's sister Jean had two daughters, Edith and Margaret Swanson, and in 1940 both were teachers at the Strathcona Academy at 520 (Côte) Ste Catherine Road in Outremont, Montreal. Today this building, built in 1898, is home to the Department of Geography of the University of Montreal.
When WWII started more teachers were needed and the traits they were looking for changed - now not only were they to teach, but to be a role model for latch-key kids, who had absentee fathers and mothers who worked all day. The salary for a teacher depended on whether it was a male or female, and if they held a degree or not. Some "most successful" teachers received bonuses.
average teacher salaries 1899 -1900
There are a few people of Quebec mentioned (in passing) as being schoolmasters in the judicial records at BANQ... go to the Pistard section and search "maître ecole". (You can open in Chrome or use a translator for English). These are court records.
Take a look through the publications "The Education Record for the Province of Quebec", some list teachers: Vol 16 has list of students that received diplomas (page 359), the 1916 volume has a list at the end of "Superior Schools" and their teachers, following appointments to school commissioner (page 323), teacher bonuses and prizes (check each district report), members of the Provincial Association of Teachers (page 34 - 68), plus good information throughout.
Also look to school yearbooks for names and photos of teachers. Following are other materials I have found that give lists of teachers.
Educational Record of the Province of Quebec 1916
Educational Record of the Province of Quebec Vol 16 - 1896
Names and addresses of school teachers of the county of Middlesex, Ont 1899
Westborough Teachers Association (Mass) seniority list 1982-1983 (tenure teachers only)
List of teachers in school districts nos 9 and 10, Sutton, Mass from 1790 to 1897
List of high school teachers, city and county superintendents of Missouri, 1914-1915
Superintendents, teachers and principal officers of Ackworth School, UK 1779 - 1894
Candidates eligible for appointments as teachers - Boston
A handbook showing the names, positions, residences and salaries of the officers, professors & teachers under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education, together with the location of the colleges and schools - New York 1876
Annual School Directory 1909-1910: public schools of Munroe County, NY
History of the "Old High School" on School Street, Springfield, Mass 1828 - 1840; with a personal history of the teachers
Allen County, Indiana school directory - c 1897-1920
The Teachers List - complete alphabetic directory - UK 1872
A Portrait of Retired Black Teachers; a legacy of Nova Scotia's Black History.
Schools and Teachers in the Province of Ontario
Schoolmasters of New France
Ontario Teachers: at Olive Tree Genealogy